Accurate CFD for all regimes

ICFD++ can be used to simulate compressible and incompressible fluids and flows, unsteady and steady flows, large range of speed regimes including low speeds through subsonic, transonic, supersonic and hypersonic speeds, laminar and turbulent flows, various equations of state.

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  • What is ICFD++?
  • Why ICFD++?
  • Unified Technology
  • Validations
  • Publications
  • Features

What is ICFD++?

  • Metacomp’s Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software suite
  • Seamlessly handles most flow regimes
  • All grid types handled
  • External and internal flows
  • Capable of treating complex physics
  • Unique capabilities for moving meshes
  • Fast computation of steady and unsteady flows
  • Realizable physical, numerical & mathematical models
  • General framework, extensible and customizable
  • Efficient scalability to thousands of CPU cores
  • ICFD++ is used by over 200 discerning organizations worldwide
  • ICFD++ is running on hundreds of thousands of CPUs at any given moment

Why ICFD++?

  • The only commercial flow solver that provides efficient flow solution for any flow regime without sacrificing accuracy and robustness.
  • ICFD++ consistently outperforms other commercial solvers in blind benchmarks and workshops.
  • Software support that is unparalleled in the industry. Customers have direct access to senior support/staff members.
  • An easy-to-use Advanced User Interface (AUI) that is built upon the premise of simplifying complexities. Simulations involving multi-physics and multiple phases are set in a matter of minutes.

  • ICFD++ Unified Physics +

    ICFD++ Unified Physics

    CFD++ can efficiently solve compressible flows (at all Mach numbers) and incompressible flows, including both single and multi-species treatment, reacting flows, multiphase flows, steady and unsteady flows, rotating machinery, conjugate heat transfer, porous media, etc.

     Various topography-parameter-free models are used to capture turbulent flow features. The nonlinear subset of these models accounts for Reynolds stress anisotropy, streamline curvature and swirl. All these models can be either integrated directly to the wall, or combined with a sophisticated wall-function treatment that models the effects of compressibility, pressure gradient and heat transfer. A single equation LES model and advanced hybrid LES/RANS models are also available.  The latter reduces the cost of traditional large eddy simulation by modeling the near-wall layer and automatically exploiting the advantages of LES in embedded fine-grid regimes.

  • ICFD++ Unified Grid +

    ICFD++ Unified Grid

    CFD++ allows for very easy treatment of complex geometries thanks to its unification of structured, unstructured and multi-block grids. CFD++ can also handle complex overset and patched non-aligned grids. The code's versatility allows the use of various elements within the same mesh such as hexahedral, triangular prism, pyramid and tetrahedral elements in 3-D, quadrilateral and triangular elements in 2-D, and line elements in 1-D.

  • ICFD++ Unified Computing +

    ICFD++ Unified Computing

    ICFD++ is a software suite that is available for use on all computer systems, from personal to massively parallel computers and network clusters, running various operating systems including Windows, Linux and various flavors of Unix. Multi CPU jobs are as easy to run as single CPU jobs. Files are compatible across all platforms.

    Platforms Supported: All Linux X86-64 Compatible, Windows X86-64 Compatible

    Interconnects supported: GigE and 10GigE, Infiniband

    Proprietary interconnects including CRAY, MPT from SGI etc.

    ICFD++ scales well to very large number of cores. The scalability improvements are universally applicable to all modern HPC platforms

    I/O and “initial processing” improvements are enabling technologies for using very large number of cores e.g. 100s to 1000s

    Inter-CPU connectivity algorithms speeded up by factor 10 to 100

  • ICFD++ Advanced Numerics +

    ICFD++ Advanced Numerics

    A multi-dimensional higher-order Total Variation Diminishing interpolation is used to avoid spurious numerical oscillations in the computed flowfield. These polynomials are exact fits of multi-dimensional linear data. Various approximate Riemann solvers are used to guarantee correct signal propagation for the inviscid flow terms. Advanced convergence acceleration techniques used include unique pre-conditioning, relaxation and multi-grid algorithms.

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CFD++ has been extensively validated for a vast array of flow regimes and applications.



ICFD++ Publications

A collection of papers by Metacomp's customers.


  • Batten, P., Ribaldone, E., Casella, M. and Chakravarthy, S., "Towards a Generalized Non-Linear Acoustics Solver", AIAA-2004-3001, 10th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, Manchester, UK, 10-12 May, 2004.
  • Ilario da Silva,C.R., Almeida, O., Batten, P., "Investigation of an Axi-Symmetric Subsonic Turbulent Jet using Computational Aeroacoustics Tools", 13th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, AIAA 2007-3656, 2007. 


  • Archambault M.R. and Peroomian O., "Characterization of a Gas/Gas, Hydrogen/Oxygen Engine", AIAA-2002-3594 38th AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference
  • Archambault M.R. and Peroomian O., "Three-Dimensional Simulation of a Gas/Gas, Hydrogen/Oxygen Engine", AIAA-2003-314 41st AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting 
  • Abdelhamid Y.A. and Ganz U.W., "Prediction of Shock-Cell Structure and Noise in Dual Flow Nozzles", AIAA-2007-3721 13th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference

 Eulerian Dispersed Phase

  • Champagne V.K., Helfritch D.J. and Dinavahi S., "Comparison of Empirical and Theoretical Computations of Velocity for a Cold Spray Nozzle", IEEE, 978-1-4244-5769-4, 2009 
  • Vu B., Bachchan N., Peroomian O., Akdag V., "Multiphase Modeling of Water Injection on Flame Deflector", AIAA-2013-2592, AIAA Fluid Dynamics 2013 
  • Martins da Silva D., Bachchan, N., Kim I., Peroomian O., "Icing Collection Efficiency Prediction using an Eulerian-Eulerian Approach", AIAA-2014-3073, AIAA Fluid Dynamics 2014 

 Ground Effects

  • R. E. Wirz and S. S. Shariff, "Ground Effects for CEV Vertical Retrorockets", AIAA-2007-5758, July 2007.

High-Altitude and Reentry

  • Gimelshein N.E., Lyons R.B., Reuster J.G. and Gimelshein S.F., "Analysis of Physical and Numerical Factors for Prediction of UV Radiation from High Altitude Two-Phase Plumes", 40th AIAA Thermophysics Conference, Jun 2008.
  • Gimelshein N.E., Lyons R.B., Reuster J.G. and Gimelshein S.F., "Numerical Prediction of UV Radiation from Two-Phase Plumes at High Altitudes", 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, NV, Jan 2007 
  • Rothnie M.D. and Acheson K.E., "Fast and Accurate Use of Unstructured CFD Methods to Assess Performance and Aerodynamic Heating of Reusable Launch Vehicles in Hypersonic Flight", AIAA-2009-3632 
  • Boyce R. and Stumvoll A.K., "Re-Entry Body Drag: Shock Tunnel Experiments and Computational Fluid Dynamics Calculations Compared", Shock Waves (2007) 16:431-443 
  • Lin T.C., Kim M., Sproul L.K., Choi F. and Shivananda T.P., "High Angle of Attack Aerodynamics and Aerothermodynamics", AIAA 2006-663 

High-Lift Aerodynamics

  • Khare A., Baig R. et al., "Computational Simulation of Flow Over a High Lift Trapezoidal Wing", Intl. Journal of Aerospace Innovations, Vol. 1, No. 4, (2009) 189-199 (Note: Subsequent work has shown much improved scalability with later builds of CFD++) 


  • Jugroot M., Groth C.P.T., Thomson B.A., Baranov V. and Collings B.A., "Numerical Investigation of Interface Region Flows in Mass Spectrometers: Neutral Gas Transport", J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37 (2004) 1289-1300 | 
  • Jugroot M., Groth C.P.T., Thomson B.A., Baranov V. and Collings B.A., "Numerical Investigation of Ion Transport in Under-Expanded Jet Flows", AIAA-2003-4210 |


  • J. DeSpirito, S.I. Silton, and P. Weinacht, "Navier-Stokes Predictions of Dynamic Stability Derivatives: Evaluation of Steady-State Methods", ARL-TR-4605, September 2008. 
  • J. Sahu, "Numerical Computations of Dynamic Derivatives of a Finned Projectile Using a Time-Accurate CFD Method", AIAA-2007-6581, August 2007. 

Turbulence Modeling

  • P. Batten, T.J. Craft, M.A. Leschziner and H. Loyau, "Reynolds-Stress Transport Modelling for Compressible Aerodynamics Applications", AIAA, volume 37, number 7, pages 785-797, 1999.

Below you will find a collection of CFD++ publications by the research staff of Metacomp Technologies.

  • Uriel C. Goldberg (2016): "A √k − l Turbulence Model for Fluids Engineering Applications", Studies in Engineering and Technology Vol. 3, No. 1; August 2016 . 
  • Uriel C. Goldberg, Paul Batten, Oshin Peroomian & Sukumar Chakravarthy (2015): "The R-γ transition prediction model", International Journal of Computational Fluid Dynamics .
  • Uriel C. Golberg, Paul Batten (2015): "A wall-distance-free version of the SST turbulence model", Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics
  •  P.Batten, U.Goldberg, E.Kang and S.Chakravarthy, "Smart Sub-Grid-Scale Models for LES and hybrid RANS/LES", AIAA-2011-3472, 2011. 
  • U. Goldberg, S. Palaniswamy, P. Batten, V. Gupta, "Variable Turbulent Schmidt and Prandtl Number Modeling", Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 511-520, 2010. 
  • P.Batten, U.Golberg, O.Peroomian and S.Chakravarthy, "Recommendations and best practice for the current state of the art in turbulence modelling", International Journal of Computational Fluid Dynamics, vol. 23, no. 4, pages 363-374, 2009.
  • U.Goldberg, O.Permoomian, P.Batten and S.Chakravarthy, "The k-epsilon-Rt Turbulence Closure", Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, vol. 3, no. 2, pages 175-183, 2009.
  • U. Goldberg, "A k-ℓ Turbulence Closure Sensitized to Non-Simple Shear Flows”, Int. J. of Computational Fluid Dynamics, 20, No. 9, 2006, 651-656
  • Batten, P., Goldberg, U. and Chakravarthy, S., “Interfacing Statistical Turbulence Closures with Large Eddy Simulation,” AIAA Journal, volume 42, number 3, pages 485-492, March 2004.
  • Batten, P., Ribaldone, E., Casella, M. and Chakravarthy, S., “Towards a Generalized Non-Linear Acoustics Solver,” AIAA-2004-3001, 10th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, Manchester, UK, 10-12 May, 2004.
  • Goldberg, U., Batten, P. and Palaniswamy, S., “The q-ℓ Turbulence Closure for Wall-Bounded and Free Shear Flows,” AIAA Paper 2004-269, 42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, NV, January 2004.
  • Goldberg, U., “Turbulence Closure with a Topography-Parameter-FreeSingle Equation Model,” IJCFD, 17, No. 1, pp. 27-38, 2003.
  • P. Batten, U. Goldberg and S. Chakravarthy "LNS - An Approach Towards Embedded LES," AIAA Paper No. 2002-0427, 40th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno/NV, 2002. 
  • Goldberg, U., Batten, P., Palaniswamy, S., Chakravarthy, S. and Peroomian, O., "Hypersonic Flow Predictions Using Linear and Nonlinear Turbulence Closures," AIAA J. of Aircraft 37 No. 4, pp. 671-675, 2000.
  • Goldberg, U., "Hypersonic Flow Heat Transfer Prediction Using Single Equation Turbulence Models,"ASME J. Heat Transfer 123 No. 1, pp. 65-69, 2001.
  • Goldberg, U. and Batten, P., "Heat Transfer Predictions Using a Dual-Dissipation k-epsilon Turbulence Closure," AIAA J. of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer 15 No. 2, pp. 197-204, 2001.
  • Palaniswamy, S., Goldberg, U., Peroomian, O. and Chakravarthy, S., "Predictions of Axial and Transverse Injection into Supersonic Flow," Flow, Turbulence and Combustion 66 No. 1, pp. 37-55, 2001.
  • P. Batten, U.C. Goldberg, S. Palaniswamy and S.R. Chakravarthy "Hybrid RANS/LES : Spatial-Resolution and Energy-Transfer Issues," TSFP2, Stockholm, 2001.
  • P. Batten, U.C. Goldberg, S.R. Chakravarthy, T.J. Craft and M.A. Leschziner "Afterbody Boattail- and Plume-Flow Modeling using Anisotropy-Resolving Turbulence Closures," AIAA Paper No. 01-3977, 37th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Salt Lake City, Utah 2001.
  • P. Batten, T. Bose, S. Chakravarthy, S. Palaniswamy, U. Goldberg and O. Peroomian "Effect of Stagger Angle on Convective Heat Transfer Inside Rotating Tubes," AIAA Paper No. 01-3755, 37th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Salt Lake City, Utah 2001. 
  • T.K. Bose "A CFD Study of Hypersonic Weakly-Ionized Argon Plasma Flow," AIAA Paper No. 01-3021, 35th AIAA Thermophysics Conference, Anaheim, California, 2001. 
  • S. Chakravarthy, T. Bose, P. Batten, S. Palaniswamy, U. Goldberg and O. Peroomian "Convective Heat Transfer Inside Rotating Tubes," AIAA Paper No. 00-3356, 36th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Huntsville, Alabama 2000.
  • T. K. Bose "A Van-der-Walls Approach for Nozzle Flow of Weakly Ionized Gases," 38th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno/NV, AIAA-2000-0216, 2000.
  • P. Batten, U. Goldberg and S. Chakravarthy "Sub-grid Turbulence Modeling for Unsteady Flow with Acoustic Resonance," AIAA Paper No. 00-0473, Reno 2000. 
  • T. K. Bose, S. Chakravarthy, U. Goldberg, S. Palaniswamy and O. Peroomian "CFD Analysis of Turbine Rotating Shafts and Disks," 35th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, Los Angeles/CA, AIAA-99-2523, June 1999.
  • T. K. Bose "Thermodynamic Analysis of Magnetogasdynamic Accelerator for Hypersonic Tunnels," 37th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno/NV, AIAA-99-0890, Jan 1999.
  • U. Goldberg and O. Peroomian "Hypersonic Flow Heat Transfer Prediction with Wall-Distance-Free Turbulence Models," Computational Methods and Experimental Measurements IX, pages 261-270, G.M. Carlomagno and C.A. Brebbia (Eds.), WIT Press, 1999.
  • P. Batten, M. A. Leschziner and T. J. Craft "Reynolds-Stress-Modeling of Afterbody Flows," TSFP1, Santa Barbara, September 1999.
  • U. C. Goldberg and S. Palaniswamy "The k-e-f_mu Turbulence Closure Model," Computer Meth. Appl. Mech. & Engrg., 179/1-2, pages 145-156, 1999.
  • U. Goldberg, O. Peroomian, and S. Chakravarthy "Application of k-e-R Turbulence Model to Wall-bounded Compressive Flows," AIAA Paper No. 98-0323, Reno 1998. 
  • S. Chakravarthy and S. Palaniswamy and U. Goldberg and O. Peroomian and B. Sekar "A Unified-grid Approach for Propulsion Applications," 34th AIAA/ASME/ SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Cleveland, July 1998.
  • U. Goldberg, O. Peroomian, and S. Chakravarthy "A Wall-Distance-Free k-e Model With Enhanced Near-wall Treatment," ASME J. Fluids Engrg., volume 120, pages 457-462, September 1998.
  • O. Peroomian, S. Chakravarthy, Sampath Palaniswamy, and U. Goldberg "Convergence Acceleration for Unified-Grid Formulation using Preconditioned Implicit Relaxation," AIAA Paper No. 98-0116, Reno 1998. 
  • U. Goldberg, O. Peroomian, and S. Chakravarthy and B. Sekar "Validation of CFD++ Code Capability for Supersonic Combuster Flowfields," AIAA Paper No. 97-3271, Seattle 1997. 
  • O. Peroomian and S. Chakravarthy "A 'Grid-Transparent' Methodology for CFD," AIAA Paper No. 97-0724, Reno 1997. 
  • S. Chakravarthy, U. Goldberg, O. Peroomian and B. Sekar "Some Algorithmic Issues in Viscous Flows Explored using a Unified-Grid CFD Methodology," 13th AIAA CFD Conference, Snowmass, June 1997.
  • S. Chakravarthy, O. Peroomian and B. Sekar "Some Internal Flow Applications of a Unified-Grid CFD Methodology," AIAA Paper No. 96-2024, Florida 1996.

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Please contact Metacomp Technologies for any information regarding these publications.


ICFD++ Features 

  • Advanced UI
  • Turbulence
  • Numerics
  • Reacting Flows
  • Heat Transfer & Radiation
  • Moving Meshes
  • Mesh Morphing
  • Eulerian Multiphase
  • Lagrangian Multiphase
  • Mixture Model
  • Volume of Fluid
  • Non-Newtonian Flows
  • Physics Source Terms
  • Hypersonics

Advanced User Interface (AUI)

  • ICFD++ is part of the Metacomp’s Integral Computational Multi-Physics (ICMP) framework
  • Common interfaces and features for mesh generation, CFD, structural analysis and solution visualization
  • Consistent UI and functionalities between all ICMP-based products

  • Intuitive and simple guided problem setup process
  • Powerful and user-friendly at the same time

ICFD++ has the following Turbulence models

Topography-parameter-independent models

  • 1-equation models:naca0012 3d
    • Rt model
    • SA (including QCR & RC variants)
  • 2-equation models:
    • Realizable k-ε model
    • Non-linear (cubic) k-ε model
    • SST
    • Non-linear (quartic) Hellsten model
  • 3-equation model:
    • Realizable k-ε-Rt model
  • 4-equation Langtry-Menter transition model
  • 7-equation non-linear RSTM model

Advanced wall functions: 

  • Handle any y+ and provide consistent solutions at any y+
  • Seamless switching between low and high Re approaches depending on y+

LES and Hybrid RANS/LES

  • Models: LNS, DES97, DDES and IDDES
  • Improved accuracy with smart sub-grid scale modeling
  • Large-Eddy STimulation for automatic eddy seeding in LES

Advanced Numerics

  • Density and pressure-based solvers for appropriate regimes
  • A multi-dimensional higher-order Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) interpolation is used to avoid spurious numerical oscillations
  • Approximate Riemann solvers are used to guarantee correct signal propagation for the inviscid flow terms
  • Preconditioning which prevents eigenvalue spread and achieves near-optimal minimum levels of dissipation in low-speed flows
  • Advanced convergence acceleration techniques used include unique pre-conditioning, relaxation and multi-grid algorithms


ICFD++ Reacting Flows

  • Generalized Arrhenius Chemistry Model
  • Large database of gases and liquids
  • Reactions handled accurately and efficiently using a smart integrator
  • Chemkin conversion tool for species and reactions information
  • User-defined chemistry (UDF) functionality
  • Automatic detection and handling of non-integer power reactions
  • Dynamically Thickened Flame Model resolves flame fronts and captures turbulence-chemistry interactions
  • Pressure dependent reactions
  • Volumetric source for simulating ignition source
  • Handling of supercritical combustion via cubic equations of state


combustor air propane temperaturepurdue combustor 2

Heat Transfer and Radiation

Conjugate Heat Transfer

  • Isotropic and constant properties
  • Composites and variable properties e.g. temperature-dependent


  • P1 radiation model
  • Discrete ordinates (DO) model


Moving Meshes

  • Unique capabilities in simulating steady and unsteady flows over complex geometries including bodies in relative motion
  • Sliding and overset meshes
  • Accurate treatment of conservation for such meshes
  • Sequential cutting approach for cutting & blanking
  • Global and body frame motion modes
  • Includes an integrated rigid body dynamics (RBD) capability with a six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) module
  • Co-simulation possibilities in 6DOF mode

F18 Store Separation

Demo geometry of a F18 releasing external gas tank
F18 Solution
Overset Mesh
Cross sectional cut of the background mesh and the store.  Cutting and blanking are done automatically by ICFD++.
Close-up to store outer boundary

Metacomp Prop-Plane

Overset Mesh
Overset mesh solution


Geometry designed by Metacomp engineers for solver demo purposes.
Overset Mesh
Overset mesh solution
Close-Up to Prop section



Mesh Morphing

  • RBF-based mesh morphing available via tool and solver (transient mode)
  • File-based and BC-based mesh morphing modes
  • Special analytical morphing modes for flexible discs and pistons
  • Automatic periodicity of motion
  • Multi-CPU mesh morphing (tool and solver)


Eulerian Dispersed Phase Capabilities

Eulerian Dispersed Phase (EDP)

  • Source terms (lift force, buoyancy)
  • Melting, solidification, radiation
  • Grace model for air bubbles
  • Oxygen transfer model (OTM)

Evaporation models

  • Constant evaporation rate
  • Boiling model
  • Boiling+Hertz-Knudsen

Condensation models

  • Gyarmathy model
  • Hertz-Knudsen model
  • Condensation in the expansion of combustion products + pure steam flows.

Special physics:

  • Particle size distributions
  • Aero break-up model
  • Wall impingement model (SLD)

Aero break-up model

  • Models secondary aero breakup of droplets
  • Application to liquid fuel injection, aircraft icing simulations

Wall impingement model (SLDs, Supercooled Large Droplets)

  • Simulates droplet-wall interactions
  • Droplet rebound and splash
  • Large droplet sizes > 50 microns
  • Improved collection efficiency prediction in SLD conditions
  • Applications to aircraft icing simulations

Lagrangian Dispersed Phase

Lagrangian Dispersed Phase (LDP)

  • Taylor analogy breakup model
  • Cascade atomization & drop breakup
  • Wave breakup model
  • Hybrid wave breakup model
  • Primary breakup models

Special physics:

  • Multiple parcel injection
  • Co-axial, cross-streams
  • Spray angle (input)
  • Variable parcel velocity

Homogenous Mixture Model

  • Multiphase flow, also small droplets and bubbles
  • Additional equation for volume fraction
  • Evaporation, condensation, cavitation

Non-Homogenous Mixture Model

  • Model accounts for slip/drift velocity between the phases
  • Turbulent dispersion can be included in drift velocity

Cavitation models:

  • Zwart-Gerber-Belamri model, Schnerr-Sauer model & Singhal model
  • Secondary phase compressibility and material density overrides for cavitation

Volume of Fluid (VOF)

  • Distinct non-mixed phases e.g. gas-liquid interface
  • Artificial compression for sharp interfaces
  • Surface tension effects
  • Gravity wave inflow
  • Wetting angle definition accounts for wall adhesion


  • Sloshing, ditching
  • Boat flows

Non-Newtonian Model for shear-thickening and shear-thinning fluids

Four viscosity models:

  • Power law model
  • Herschel-Bulkley model
  • Cross model
  • Carreau model

Physics and source Terms  

  • Axisymmetric swirl
  • Sinusoidal body force
  • Porous media
  • Mass injection
  • Stator blade model
  • Synthetic jet doublet
  • Vortex-like source
  • Plasma actuator model
  • Helicopter rotor model
  • Volumetric source terms
  • User-linked subroutines


High-temperature gas dynamics

  • Two-temperature non-equilibrium model
  • Tannehill curve fits for equilibrium air
  • Ionized air viscosity model
  • Species properties for Earth/Mars entry and ablation over a five-temperature range up to 30,000 K
  • Catalytic wall conditions
  • Ablative wall conditions


  • Reentry and aero-heating
  • Hypersonic plumes
  • Scramjets